All types of freight transport
In this article, we will look at the types of vehicles that are used in the modern world for freight and passenger transportation. The questions of the role of road freight transport in the construction of logistics processes will also be raised. You will learn how the methods of communication are classified in railway transportation, what types of air cargo transportation exist. Sea transport will also be considered in the context of freight traffic. For each option, a system of the main stages of transportation will be presented.
At the moment, the effectiveness of vehicles for organizing the transportation of various goods is already undeniable. Without a system for moving goods, the world economy simply would not have been able to develop and remained at the level of the Middle Ages. That is why this topic has become the object of our deep study today. AF-Group provides transport services using all modern types of land, air or sea transport.
Modes of transport for freight transport
Without transport, there would be no logistics system. To participate in the process of cargo transportation, vehicles must have certain characteristics, thanks to which the effective use of the vehicle is achieved for organizing the transportation of inventory items. Rapid adaptation of one or another product to the needs of logistics is the main condition for building a stable chain with strict adherence to delivery times. All options should have some flexibility and the ability to change the schedule and time of dispatch depending on the current circumstances. In this way, the best possible result can be achieved. Transport should work almost around the clock and not be idle due to changes in market conditions and conditions.
Urgent delivery even to the most remote corners of different countries of the world is impossible without a continuous logistics cycle. Enterprises with a continuous production cycle also need a clear route of transport with the goods necessary for work. Recently, special attention has been paid to the organization of express logistics from small in volume, but frequent consignments. Customers of transport companies expect their goods on time and cannot afford to suffer losses due to transportation disruptions.
Freight transport can be of the following types:
- automobile (vehicles for moving on public roads)
- air (airplanes and helicopters of various types with compartments for temporary accommodation of transported goods)
- railway (vehicles running on railway tracks)
- sea (ships of various types, carrying out cargo transportation by sea)
- inland waterways (river - ships that operate on rivers without going out to the open sea).
The peculiarity of the cargo varieties is that its design provides for separate elements that provide the possibility of temporary placement and delivery of goods. From the point of view of logistics needs, each of the types of freight transport has its own pros and cons for use in international and domestic transportation of goods. Let's take a closer look at the main types of vehicles.
This type includes all mechanisms that move on public roads without the aid of a rail, using autonomous internal combustion engines running on gasoline or diesel fuel (recently, electric motors are also gaining popularity).
Advantages of road transport:
- there are inexpensive and affordable options
- no dependence on the presence of a rail, the route is laid relatively autonomous
- it is possible to quickly change the direction of movement
- excellent combinatorial skills with other methods of cargo transportation
- the ability to ensure the safety of cargo during transportation
- transportation of small batches is available
- a huge selection of carriers (thanks to this, it is easy to replace the performer in the event of a force majeure).
Cons of vehicles:
- with very large volumes of transported goods, use is limited due to the small capacity (compared to railway, air and sea types of vehicles)
- bad weather can cause long delays
- high cost when ordering long-distance transportation
- low level of environmental friendliness of internal combustion engines
- after arriving at the destination, it is necessary to quickly unload.
These vehicles move like the previous version, but they do it along the paved railway tracks.
Advantages of railway transport:
- a large amount of cargo can be loaded
- movement is possible without stopping even at night and over rough terrain where rails are laid.
- no dependence on weather conditions (railway trains can transport goods in almost any weather)
- regular train schedule
- the ability to load and unload in more efficient ways
- low cost of transportation per unit of production
- transit logistics makes transportation even more budgetary
- taking into account the continuous movement over long distances, the time for transportation is minimal compared to most other methods (except air transportation).
Cons of railway transportation:
- little competition in the market, which reduces the opportunity to find an alternative carrier
- high cost of production and technical base
- transportation requires large investments in the organization
- logistics only to railway stations, from where it will be necessary to pick up the cargo for delivery to the final point
- relatively high risk of damage to goods (compared to other options).
This category includes cargo airliners that fly long distances and helicopters with cargo compartments that can fly relatively short distances.
Pros of air freight:
- prompt delivery (the fastest possible)
- a high level of ensuring the safety of cargo (including due to the short storage time of the consignment on board)
- volume limitation (it is not possible to load the plane with the same amount of products as railway and sea transport).
- it is possible to transport goods to places where it is impossible to reach by other means of transport.
Cons of air transport:
- high costs of organizing transportation
- expensive tariffs for customers
- dependence on weather conditions
- low level of maneuverability when changing plans
- the need to pick up cargo from the airport.
This type includes ships that transport goods across the oceans and seas. This is often international shipping.
Advantages of sea transportation:
- this is the only option for the transportation of large consignments of cargo between continents (air transportation is the second alternative, but the carrying
- capacity of sea vessels is much higher)
- low price for long-distance cargo transportation
- large capacity and carrying capacity.
Cons of sea transport:
- few routes
- slow traffic
- weather dependence
- high requirements for packing and securing cargo inside the cargo compartment
- relatively high risk of damage to fragile goods
- low market competition.
Inland water (river)
It is a method of delivering goods through inland water bodies within one country. Vessels operate on rivers and lakes.
Advantages of inland waterway transport:
- large carrying capacity and capacity of ships
- low tariffs for the carriage of goods.
Cons of river cargo transportation:
- weather dependence
- low speed
- seasonal work (except for the winter period)
- relatively high risk of damage to goods.
Automotive type of freight transport in domestic logistics
In our country, this type of cargo transportation is in high demand. It is one of the most developed industries in the logistics business, which ensures the smooth operation of many sectors of the national economy: from production sites to social infrastructure. If an urgent shipment of cargo is required, then this option has practically no alternatives. It is worth noting that it is motor transport that is capable of picking up goods from railway stations, from seaports and from airports after sea, railway and air transportation for delivery to the end consumer. Also, the advantage of this method is the relatively simple requirements for the presence of packaging of goods. The risk of damage if properly loaded and transported is minimal. The prompt response of auto logistics to changing conditions is one of the main advantages. The variability of routes and the ability to change the number and location of loading and unloading points right in the process are advantages that other options do not have.
When transporting inventory items over long distances, the cost of providing auto delivery becomes too high. It is necessary to take into account the depreciation of vehicles (wear of parts, tires, related equipment) and the cost of maintaining the driver (s) along the entire route. On long journeys, auto delivery becomes less competitive. But with prompt logistics within the country and within a separate region, this is practically the only option in our country. Statistics show that of all the alternatives for domestic cargo transportation, 55% of cargo is transported by road. We also note that these indicators do not stay at the same level and do not decrease, but grow every year.
But the development of the industry is constrained by certain negative factors. These include the underdeveloped transport infrastructure and the poor condition of the road surface in certain regions. With an increase in the load on the transport network, a natural process will be the modernization of the entire system to increase the efficiency of trucking. With a large length of roads within our country, a high level of skills is required to create optimal routes. AF-Group specialists have vast experience in the field of logistics, therefore, they can build processes in such a way that customers receive the most prompt and careful delivery of goods by road in Ukraine.
Classification of trucks
It is not possible to combine all vehicles traveling on public roads into one group. There are several types of vehicles that differ in performance and purpose. Let's consider the features of the main classes.
One of the most common types. Most of the goods are transported in our country in these types of vehicles. It differs in that it is structurally possible to load oversized cargo from any side. This is convenient and allows you to reduce the time spent on loading and unloading. The carrying capacity is from 20 tons, and the volume is from 60 cubic meters.
This is a cargo semi-trailer, in which additional equipment is installed for the transportation of goods with certain requirements for temperature conditions. A special unit is capable of pumping cooled air into the cargo compartment and maintaining comfortable conditions for the transportation of perishable products. Carrying capacity usually starts from 1.5 tons, the volume can be up to 66 cubic meters.
This type can be called a "thermos on wheels". The inside of the load compartment can be kept at a comfortable temperature for a long time. This allows for the transportation of perishable goods over long distances. Volume for placing a batch of goods up to 92 cubic meters. Carrying capacity from 3 to 25 tons.
To organize cargo transportation in this way, you will need a car (tractor) that will tow a semi-trailer with loaded goods. This type of vehicle has an advantage in the efficiency of loading and unloading operations and the convenience of building logistics processes. The volume starts from 60 cubic meters, the transported weight can be 16-25 tons of useful products.
This is a semi-trailer with an L-shaped floor and wheels of a larger diameter than in conventional versions. Thus, it is possible to increase the capacity and the number of transported goods. With a lifting capacity of 20 tons, the capacity is as much as 110 cubic meters. This is the most efficient volume-to-weight ratio of all alternatives. Thanks to this feature, the option is suitable for the transportation of relatively light and bulky goods.
This is a view with a special platform for placing containers in which the cargo is directly stored. It is convenient to pick up containers after transportation by sea from the port. Carrying capacity of 20-30 tons allows you to easily place a standard container on the platform.
This is an open platform with high sides, in which only cargo can be transported that will not deteriorate from the effects of precipitation and other weather conditions. Oversized cargo is most conveniently transported in this way. With a maximum weight of 3 to 25 tons, you can conveniently load a variety of items, even round or semicircular.
Open platformsThis is similar to the previous version, which does not have sides along the perimeter of the structure. This is done for the convenience of loading stable and bulky goods that can be fastened to the tie. They accept a weight of 15–20 tons.
Oversized platformsThese are special platforms that allow loading oversized and very large loads of a specific shape. The design and load capacity are individual for each model.
Tank trucksTo transport liquids, you need just such a transport option. Oily, aggressive and flammable liquids can be transported inside the tank. Carrying capacity is 12-22 tons. Volume - 40 cubic meters Tanks are equipped with steel or aluminum bodies. The shape can be round, elliptical, and in the form of a parallelepiped with rounded corners.
Types and classification of freight traffic in railway transport
Delivery of goods using railway transport can be of several types (except for direct delivery by one mode of transport):
- transportation in direct mixed traffic (several types of transport take part here at once, and the documentation is drawn up uniform for the entire route)
- indirect mixed traffic (in this case, several types of vehicles are also used, but each shipment has its own documents).
Also, goods can be delivered in international traffic with the participation of railway systems between two or more countries.
Features of cargo air transport
International transportation of goods is carried out by 40% precisely with the help of air traffic between countries. This is a very high indicator that demonstrates the demand for prompt and safe delivery.
Air transport is ideal for the following product groups:
- valuable goods (works of art, antiques, precious metals and stones, furs, etc.)
- goods requiring urgent delivery, including perishable goods
- humanitarian aid
- post office
- food and industrial products for remote regions
- cargo for emergencies.
Only airliners with a cargo hold can cover vast distances in a limited time.
Types of messages on cargo sea transport
Delivery by sea transport is classified according to the territorial affiliation of the developed routes (within one country or interstate transportation). International shipping by water accounts for a huge share of all transnational cargo transportation.
There are several types of transportation:
- linear (represents scheduled sea transportation of goods along the route)
- tramp shipping (irregular delivery of goods without a schedule).
In other words, with the linear option, you can order delivery based on the developed logistics. And with the tramp method, order an individual route development.
Stages of providing cargo transportation by any type of transport.
For competent provision of cargo transportation in any way, you will need to perform several elementary actions:
- Send an application to AF-Group (in this case, you will need to indicate the most correct data on the nature and volume of the cargo, as well as on its location).
- The specialists of the transport company find out what additional services are required by the client (unloading, loading, storage and other individual conditions).
- The company's lawyers prepare the necessary documentation. The accompanying papers are prepared and payment is made for the transportation services.
- Further, there is a dispatch of freight transport (loading or picking up cargo)
- Shipping. At each stage, the integrity of the cargo is monitored by the company's specialists (personally and remotely).
- Delivery of goods and signing of acts of receipt of goods.
Regardless of the complexity of the task, AF-Group employees will be able to choose the optimal and convenient format for the project, taking into account all the wishes of the customer. Just contact our representatives so that the consultants will select the best type of freight transport for the implementation of your tasks.
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